Banking Reference Guide: 100+ Essential Banking Terms

Banking Reference Guide: 100+ Essential Banking Terms

Welcome to Our Comprehensive Guide on Essential Banking Terms!

Banking Reference Guide: 100+ Essential Banking Terms

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on essential banking terms! Whether you're a new hire in the financial industry, or a seasoned professional brushing up on your knowledge, this reference will be your go-to resource.

From understanding account types to navigating the complexities of loans and investments, we've got you covered. Explore over 100 key banking terms, explained clearly and concisely, to enhance your financial literacy and decision-making skills.

A - E

Account: A record of financial transactions for a customer at a bank, showing credits, debits, and balances. Accounts can be of various types, such as checking, savings, or loans, and they help customers manage their finances efficiently. Each account type offers different features and benefits tailored to specific financial needs.

Agricultural Loan: A loan designed for farmers and agribusinesses to finance agricultural operations, such as purchasing equipment, livestock, or seed, and covering operational costs. These loans are crucial for maintaining and expanding farming operations, helping to ensure a stable food supply. Terms and conditions of agricultural loans are often tailored to the seasonal nature of farming.

Amortization: The process of gradually paying off a debt over a period of time through regular payments. Each payment covers interest and a portion of the principal balance, incrementally reducing the overall debt. This method is commonly used in mortgages, car loans, and other long-term loans.

Available Balance: The amount of money in an account for immediate use, including pending transactions. It may differ from the current balance due to holds on deposits, pending withdrawals, or unprocessed checks. Knowing the available balance helps account holders manage their spending and avoid overdrafts.

Balloon Payment: A large payment due at the end of a loan's term after a series of smaller payments. Balloon payments are common in certain types of loans and financing arrangements, such as mortgages and commercial loans. This structure can lower monthly payments but requires careful planning to manage the large final payment.

Bank Draft: A check drawn on a bank's funds and signed by a bank officer. The bank guarantees the funds, considered a more secure payment than a personal check. Bank drafts are often used in transactions where the payee requires high assurance that the payment will be honored.

Bank Exam: An official inspection of a bank's records, policies, and procedures conducted by regulatory authorities to ensure compliance with laws and regulations. The goal is to assess the bank's financial health and operational practices, identifying potential risks or issues. Regular bank exams help maintain the stability and integrity of the financial system.

Bank Examiner: A professional responsible for inspecting and evaluating the financial health, compliance, and risk management practices of banks and financial institutions. They work for regulatory agencies and ensure institutions adhere to laws and regulations. Their assessments help protect depositors and maintain public confidence in the banking system.

Bankruptcy: A legal process in which individuals or businesses that cannot repay their debts seek relief from some or all of their obligations. It involves the liquidation of assets or reorganization of debt under court supervision. Bankruptcy provides a fresh start for debtors while ensuring fair treatment for creditors.

Beneficial Ownership: The right to enjoy the benefits of ownership of an asset, even if the asset's title is in another name. This term often applies when a person owns property through a proxy or entity, allowing them to receive income or benefits from the asset. Transparency in beneficial ownership is essential for preventing financial crimes.

Beneficiary: A person designated to receive funds or other benefits from a financial account or insurance policy. Beneficiaries are often named in wills, trusts, and retirement accounts, ensuring that assets are distributed according to the owner's wishes. They play a crucial role in estate planning and financial management.

Bond: A fixed-income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower. Bonds typically pay periodic interest and return the principal at maturity, providing a predictable income stream. Governments and corporations use them to raise funds for various projects and operations.

Brokerage Account: An arrangement where an investor can deposit funds and purchase investments through a licensed brokerage firm. The account can hold stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and other investments, offering a platform for building and managing a diversified investment portfolio. Brokerage accounts provide tools and resources for making informed investment decisions.

Business Account: A bank account specifically designed for business transactions, providing features such as higher transaction limits, payroll processing, and merchant services. It helps separate personal and business finances for better financial management, ensuring clear accounting and easier tax reporting.

Call Report: A quarterly report filed by banks with their regulators that provides detailed financial information about their operations, including balance sheets, income statements, and loan performance metrics. These reports help regulators monitor banks' financial health and stability and ensure compliance with banking regulations.

Capital: Wealth in the form of money or assets used or accumulated in a business. Capital can be used to fund operations, grow the business, or invest in new opportunities, and is a key factor in a company's ability to expand and innovate. Effective capital management is crucial for long-term business success.

Cash Flow: The total amount of money transferred into and out of a business. Positive cash flow indicates that more money is coming in than going out, which is essential for sustaining business operations. Managing cash flow effectively ensures a business can meet its obligations and invest in growth.

Cash Flow Analysis: Examining the inflows and outflows of cash within a business or individual's finances. It helps determine liquidity, solvency, and overall financial health, guiding decision-making and financial planning. Cash flow analysis is vital for identifying potential financial issues and opportunities.

Charge Card: A card that requires full payment of the balance each billing cycle. Unlike credit cards, charge cards do not have a preset spending limit but must be paid in full monthly. Charge cards offer convenience and financial flexibility while encouraging disciplined spending habits.

Charged-Off Loan: A loan a lender has deemed unlikely to be collected due to the borrower's prolonged delinquency. While the loan is written off as a loss, the lender may still attempt to collect the debt. Charged-off loans impact the lender's financial statements and the borrower's credit report.

Checking Account: A deposit account allowing withdrawals and deposits, typically used for daily transactions. It often comes with features like check writing, debit card access, and online banking, providing convenient access to funds. Checking accounts are essential for managing everyday financial activities.

Collateral: An asset that a borrower offers as a way for a lender to secure the loan. If the borrower defaults, the lender can seize the collateral to recover the loan amount. Common types of collateral include vehicles, real estate, and inventory, providing security for both the borrower and the lender.

Commercial Bank: A financial institution that accepts deposits, offers checking and savings account services and makes loans. Commercial banks serve individuals, businesses, and governments, playing a key role in the financial system by facilitating economic growth and stability. They provide essential financial services that support commerce and industry.

Commercial Loan: A loan granted to businesses for expansion, equipment purchase, or working capital. These loans typically have higher amounts and more complex terms than consumer loans, reflecting the diverse needs of businesses. Commercial loans are crucial for business growth and development.

Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR): An investment's mean annual growth rate over a period longer than one year. It represents one of the most accurate ways to calculate and determine returns for anything that can rise or fall in value over time. CAGR helps investors consistently compare the growth rates of different investments.

Compound Interest: Interest is calculated based on the initial principal and the accumulated interest of previous periods. This can significantly increase the amount earned or owed over time, making compound interest a powerful tool for building wealth. It is commonly used in savings accounts, investments, and loans.

Consumer Bankruptcy: A legal process in which individuals unable to repay their debts seek relief through either liquidation (Chapter 7) or reorganization (Chapter 13). It provides a fresh start for debtors and a fair distribution to creditors. Consumer bankruptcy affects credit scores and future borrowing ability.

Consumer Credit: Credit extended to individuals for personal use. It includes credit cards, personal loans, and lines of credit, allowing consumers to make purchases or access funds with the promise to repay later. Responsible use of consumer credit helps build a positive credit history.

Consumer Loan: A loan provided to individuals for personal, family, or household purposes. Common types include auto loans, personal loans, and credit card debt. Consumer loans help finance major purchases and provide financial flexibility for individuals and families.

Consumer Protections: Laws and regulations designed to uphold consumers' rights. These protections prevent fraud and unfair practices and ensure fair treatment in financial and commercial transactions. Consumer protections promote trust and confidence in the marketplace.

Credit: The ability to borrow money or access goods or services with the understanding that you'll pay later. The lender determines credit terms and limits based on creditworthiness. Responsible use of credit can enhance financial opportunities and improve credit scores.

Credit Analysis: The evaluation of a borrower's ability to repay a loan, considering factors such as income, debt levels, credit history, and financial stability. It helps lenders assess the risk of extending credit. Thorough credit analysis is essential for making informed lending decisions.

Credit Limit: A lender's maximum amount of credit will extend to a borrower. It is the highest amount a borrower can charge on a line of credit or credit card. Staying within the credit limit helps maintain a good credit score and avoid penalties.

Credit Risk Management: Identifying, assessing, and mitigating the risk of financial loss due to a borrower's failure to repay a loan or meet contractual obligations. It involves credit analysis, risk assessment, and implementing policies to minimize exposure. Effective credit risk management protects the financial health of lenders.

Credit Score: A numerical expression based on a level analysis of a person's credit files, representing the creditworthiness of an individual. Commonly used by lenders to assess the risk of lending money. Higher credit scores indicate lower risk and better credit terms.

Current Account: An account used for day-to-day banking, also known as a checking account. It allows for frequent deposits and withdrawals and is typically linked to debit cards and checkbooks. Current accounts provide essential services for managing daily financial transactions and expenses.

Cryptocurrency: A digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security. It operates independently of a central bank, allowing for secure, peer-to-peer online transactions. Popular cryptocurrencies include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin.

Debt Collection: The process of pursuing payments on debts owed by individuals or businesses. Debt collection can involve negotiating repayment plans, sending reminders, or taking legal action to recover the owed amount. Debt collection ensures that lenders receive payments and manage their financial risks.

Debit Card: A card issued by a bank allows the holder to transfer money electronically from their bank account when purchasing. Unlike credit cards, debit cards withdraw funds directly from the user's bank account. They provide a convenient and secure way to access and manage funds.

Delinquency: Failure to make payments on time. Delinquency can negatively impact credit scores and result in additional fees and penalties. Prolonged delinquency can lead to more severe consequences, such as default and legal action.

Deposit: Money placed into a financial institution for safekeeping. Deposits can be made in various forms, including cash, checks, or electronic transfers. They are essential for maintaining liquidity and earning interest.

Deposit Account: A bank account that allows customers to deposit and withdraw money. Common types include savings accounts, checking accounts, and certificates of deposit. Deposit accounts provide a secure place to store funds and earn interest.

Depreciation: A decrease in the value of an asset over time. Depreciation is often used for tax and accounting purposes to allocate the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life. It affects financial statements and asset management.

Direct Deposit: An electronic payment transfer directly from the payer's account to the recipient's account. It is commonly used for payroll, Social Security benefits, and tax refunds. Direct deposit ensures timely and secure payment transfers.

Diversification: A risk management strategy that mixes various investments within a portfolio. It aims to reduce the impact of any single asset's poor performance on the overall portfolio. Diversification helps achieve more stable returns and manage investment risk.

Dividend: A distribution of a portion of a company's earnings to its shareholders. Dividends can be issued in the form of cash payments, shares of stock, or other property. They provide a source of income for investors and reflect the company's financial health.

Dormant Accounts: Bank accounts that have had no activity for an extended period, typically one year or more. Financial institutions may charge fees, restrict access, or escheat the funds to the state. Dormant accounts require monitoring to avoid unintentional loss of funds.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): The electronic movement of money from one bank account to another. It includes direct deposits, wire transfers, and electronic bill payments. EFTs provide a convenient and efficient way to transfer funds securely.

Enterprise Risk Management (ERM): A comprehensive approach utilized by organizations to identify, assess, prioritize, and mitigate risks across all aspects of their operations. It involves establishing frameworks, processes, and methodologies to systematically manage risks that could impact the achievement of strategic objectives. ERM aims to enhance decision-making by providing a structured way to understand and address risks at all levels of an organization, thereby optimizing the balance between risk and reward.

Equity: The value of an owner's interest in an asset after deducting liabilities. In a company, equity represents the ownership interest held by shareholders. Equity can increase through profits, investments, or appreciation of assets.

Escrow: A financial arrangement where a third party holds and regulates the payment of funds required for two parties involved in a given transaction. Escrow accounts often manage earnest money deposits in real estate transactions. They ensure that the transaction conditions are met before the funds are released.

Escheatment: The process by which unclaimed or abandoned property reverts to state ownership. Escheatment typically occurs after a specified period during which the rightful owner has not been located or has not claimed the property. Escheatment laws ensure that abandoned funds are safeguarded and can eventually be reclaimed by their rightful owners.

Exchange Rate: The value of one currency for conversion to another. Exchange rates fluctuate based on economic factors, market demand, and geopolitical events. They play a crucial role in international trade and finance.

F - J

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): A U.S. government corporation that provides deposit insurance to U.S. commercial banks and depositors of savings institutions. It protects depositors’ funds in the event of a bank failure and promotes public confidence in the financial system.

FedNow: A real-time payment service developed by the Federal Reserve, expected to launch in 2023. It enables instant, around-the-clock payment transfers between banks and financial institutions and aims to improve the speed and efficiency of domestic payments.

FICO Score: A credit score created by the Fair Isaac Corporation. Lenders use it to assess an individual's credit risk and determine the likelihood of repayment. FICO scores range from 300 to 850, with higher scores indicating better creditworthiness.

Fiduciary: A person or organization that acts on behalf of another person, putting their client's interest ahead of their own. Fiduciaries have a legal and ethical obligation to act in the best interest of their clients. They are often involved in managing assets, trusts, or estate planning.

Fiduciary Account: An account managed by one party (the fiduciary) on behalf of another party (the beneficiary). The fiduciary is legally obligated to act in the beneficiary's best interest. Fiduciary accounts are used for estate management, trusts, and other situations where one party holds assets for another.

Fixed Rate: An interest rate that remains constant throughout the term of the loan or deposit. Fixed rates provide stability in monthly payments and protection against interest rate fluctuations. They are common in mortgages, car loans, and savings accounts.

Foreclosure: The process by which a lender takes control of a property from a borrower who has defaulted on their mortgage. The property is usually sold to recover the outstanding loan amount. Foreclosure affects the borrower's credit score and financial standing.

Garnishment: The legal process allowing a creditor to directly remove funds from a debtor's bank account or paycheck. It is typically used to collect overdue debts, such as unpaid taxes, child support, or court judgments, by withholding a portion of the debtor's wages or seizing funds from their bank account.

Gross Income: Total income before taxes and other deductions. It includes wages, salaries, bonuses, and any other earnings. Gross income is the starting point for calculating net income and taxable income.

Installment Loan: A loan repaid over time with a set number of scheduled payments. Examples include car loans, mortgages, and personal loans. Installment loans provide predictable payment schedules and help manage large purchases.

Interest is the cost of borrowing money, typically expressed as an annual percentage rate. It can also refer to the earnings on deposits and investments. Interest is a fundamental financial concept affecting loans, savings, and investments.

Interest Rate: The proportion of a loan charged as interest to the borrower, typically expressed as an annual percentage. Interest rates can be fixed or variable. They influence the cost of borrowing and the return on investments.

Interest Rate Risk Management: Identifying and mitigating the risk of financial loss due to fluctuations in interest rates. It involves using various strategies to balance the impact of rate changes on assets and liabilities. Effective interest rate risk management is crucial for maintaining financial stability.

Joint Account: A bank account shared by two or more individuals. All account holders have equal access and rights to the funds in the account. Joint accounts are commonly used by couples, business partners, or family members for shared financial management.

K - O

Lender: An organization or person that lends money. Lenders can be banks, credit unions, or private individuals. They provide financing for various purposes, such as purchasing a home, starting a business, or funding personal expenses.

Levies: Legal actions that allow creditors to seize assets or funds from a debtor's bank account to satisfy a debt. A court order or government agency typically authorizes levies. They are used to enforce debt repayment and recover unpaid obligations.

Liability is a company's financial debt or obligations that arise during business operations. Liabilities are settled over time by transferring economic benefits such as money, goods, or services. They are recorded on the balance sheet and impact the company's financial health.

Lien: A legal right or interest that a lender has in the borrower's property. Liens are typically used as security for a debt or loan, ensuring the lender has a claim to the property in case of default. Liens can affect the ability to sell or transfer the property.

Line of Credit: A pre-approved borrowing limit from which a customer can draw as needed. It provides flexibility in accessing funds and is typically used for short-term financing. Lines of credit can be secured or unsecured and are often used for working capital or emergency expenses.

Liquidity: The ease with which an asset can be converted into cash without affecting its market price. High liquidity means the asset can be quickly sold, whereas low liquidity indicates the opposite. Liquidity is essential for meeting short-term financial obligations and managing cash flow.

Loan: Money borrowed that is expected to be paid back with interest. Loans can be secured with collateral or unsecured and come in various forms, such as personal, auto, and mortgage loans. They provide essential financing for individuals and businesses.

Loan Review: The periodic evaluation of a loan portfolio to assess the quality, performance, and adherence to lending standards. It helps identify potential risks, ensure compliance, and improve loan management practices. Loan reviews are critical for maintaining a healthy lending portfolio.

Loan Underwriting: The process of evaluating a borrower's creditworthiness and loan terms. It involves analyzing the borrower's financial information, credit history, and collateral value. Underwriting ensures that loans are made with a clear understanding of the associated risks.

Loan-to-Value Ratio (LTV): A ratio that expresses the loan amount as a percentage of the property’s appraised value. Lenders use LTV to assess the risk of lending and determine loan terms.

Mobile Banking: A service a bank provides that allows customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device. It includes activities like checking balances, transferring funds, and paying bills. Mobile banking offers convenience and accessibility for managing finances on the go.

Money Market Account: A type of savings account that typically pays higher interest rates in exchange for higher balance requirements. These accounts often come with check-writing privileges and limited transaction capabilities. Money market accounts are suitable for saving and earning interest while maintaining liquidity.

Mortgage: A loan used to purchase real estate, where the property is collateral. Mortgages are typically long-term loans with fixed or variable interest rates. They are essential for homeownership and real estate investment.

Mortgage Delinquency: The failure to make mortgage payments on time, leading to late fees, damaged credit scores, and potential foreclosure. Delinquency begins when a missed payment continues until the account is current. Addressing delinquency promptly is crucial to avoid severe financial consequences.

Mutual Fund: An investment program funded by shareholders that trades in diversified holdings and is professionally managed. Mutual funds pool money from many investors to purchase a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities. They provide an accessible way to invest in various assets with professional management.

Net Worth: The value of all assets owned minus the total of all liabilities. It is a measure of financial health and wealth. Net worth reflects an individual's or organization's overall financial position and ability to meet future financial obligations.

Online Banking: Banking services provided over the internet. It allows customers to perform transactions, such as transferring money, paying bills, and checking account balances, from anywhere at any time. Online banking offers convenience, accessibility, and efficient financial management.

Open-End Credit: A line of credit that may be used repeatedly up to a certain limit. Credit cards are a common example of open-end credit. It provides flexibility in borrowing and repayment, allowing users to access funds within the credit limit as needed.

Overdraft: An extension of credit from a lending institution when an account reaches zero. Overdrafts allow the account holder to continue withdrawing money even if the account has no funds but typically incur fees. They provide a safety net for unexpected expenses but should be managed carefully to avoid excessive costs.

Overdraft Protection: A service banks offer to prevent checks, ATM withdrawals, and debit card transactions from causing an account to overdraft. It usually involves linking to another account or line of credit. Overdraft protection helps avoid declined transactions and overdraft fees.

P - T

Payee: The person or organization to whom a check, draft, or note is made payable. In transactions, the payee is the party receiving the payment. Ensuring accurate payee information is essential for proper payment processing.

Payer: The person who makes a payment. In a transaction, the payer is the party providing the funds. The payer is responsible for making the payment accurately and on time.

Personal Loan: A unsecured loan not backed by collateral and used for personal use. Personal loans typically have fixed interest rates and repayment terms. They provide flexible financing for personal expenses, such as medical bills, home improvements, or debt consolidation.

Personal Tax Return: A document filed with tax authorities, such as the IRS, that reports an individual's income, expenses, and other tax-related information. It determines the amount of tax owed or the refund due. Personal tax returns are essential for fulfilling tax obligations and ensuring compliance with tax laws.

Portfolio: A range of investments held by a person or organization. A diversified portfolio can include stocks, bonds, real estate, and other assets. Effective portfolio management helps achieve financial goals and manage investment risk.

Powers of Attorney: A legal document that grants one person (the agent) the authority to act on behalf of another person (the principal) in legal or financial matters. This can include managing finances, making healthcare decisions, or handling property transactions. Powers of attorney ensure that important decisions can be made even if the principal cannot.

Prepayment Penalty: A fee charged to a borrower who pays off a loan before its due date. Prepayment penalties are designed to protect lenders from the loss of interest payments. Understanding prepayment penalties is important for borrowers considering early repayment.

Prime Rate: The interest rate that commercial banks charge their most creditworthy customers. It is a benchmark for many other interest rates, including mortgage, loan, and credit card rates. Changes in the prime rate can affect borrowing costs and overall economic activity.

Principal: The original sum of money borrowed or invested, excluding interest or dividends. In loans, it is the amount on which interest is calculated. Repaying the principal reduces the overall debt and interest obligations.

Principal Balance: The money owed on a loan, excluding interest. It is the original loan amount minus any repayments of principal. Knowing the principal balance helps borrowers track their repayment progress and plan for future payments.

Promissory Note: A written promise to pay a specified amount of money on demand or at a certain time. Promissory notes are legally binding documents used in lending transactions. They outline the loan terms, including the interest rate, repayment schedule, and any penalties for default.

Provisional Credit: A temporary credit issued to a customer's account while investigating a disputed transaction. It ensures the customer can access funds while the bank investigates the claim. Provisional credits provide financial relief and maintain account functionality during disputes.

Refinance: The process of obtaining a new loan to pay off an existing loan, usually to secure better terms. Refinancing can lower monthly payments, reduce interest rates, or change the loan term. It helps borrowers improve their financial situation and manage debt more effectively.

Regulatory Capital: The minimum amount of capital that a bank or financial institution is required to hold by regulatory authorities. It ensures the institution can absorb losses and continue operations during financial stress. Regulatory capital requirements help maintain the stability and safety of the financial system.

Revolving Credit: A credit system that allows the borrower to borrow again once a portion of the debt has been repaid. Credit cards are a common example of revolving credit. It provides ongoing access to funds and flexibility in borrowing and repayment.

Revolving Line of Credit: A flexible loan arrangement that allows borrowers to draw, repay, and redraw funds up to a specified credit limit. Interest is charged on the outstanding balance, and the credit line can be reused as repayments are made. Revolving lines of credit are useful for managing cash flow and short-term financing needs.

Right of Setoff: The legal right of a bank to seize funds from a debtor's account to cover a defaulted loan or debt. It allows the bank to offset the debt with the funds available in the debtor's account. This right helps lenders recover outstanding debts efficiently.

Safe Deposit Box: A secure, individually locked container typically located in a bank's vault, safe deposit boxes are used by customers to store valuable items such as documents, jewelry, and other important possessions. Accessible only by the box owner or an authorized person, safe deposit boxes provide enhanced security against theft, loss, and damage.

Savings Account: A deposit account generally earns higher interest than a checking account. Savings accounts are intended to save money not needed for daily expenses and provide a safe place to store funds. They help individuals save for future needs and earn interest on their deposits.

Secured Credit Card: A credit card requiring a cash deposit to secure the credit line. Secured cards are often used to build or rebuild credit history. The deposit acts as collateral, reducing the risk for the lender.

Secured Loan: A loan in which the borrower pledges some asset as collateral for the loan. If the borrower defaults, the lender can seize the collateral to recover the loan amount. Secured loans typically have lower interest rates than unsecured loans due to the reduced risk for the lender.

Securities: Financial instruments that represent an ownership position in a publicly traded corporation (stock), a creditor relationship with a governmental body or a corporation (bond), or ownership rights (derivative). Securities are bought and sold in financial markets. They provide a way for investors to participate in the financial performance of companies and governments.

Security Officer: A professional responsible for the safety and security of an organization's assets, employees, and information. They develop and implement security policies, conduct risk assessments, and manage security incidents. Security officers are crucial in protecting the organization's operations and reputation.

Service Charge: A fee charged by a bank for handling an account. Service charges can include monthly maintenance, ATM, and overdraft fees. They are typically outlined in the account agreement and can impact the overall cost of banking services.

Skip Tracing: The process of locating individuals who have moved or disappeared. Debt collectors, private investigators, and law enforcement typically use it. It involves using various databases and investigative techniques to find the person's whereabouts. Skip tracing is essential for recovering debts and conducting legal investigations.

Stock: A share of ownership in a company. Stocks represent a claim on part of the company's assets and earnings. Investors buy stocks to participate in the company's growth and profit through dividends and capital appreciation.

Subpoenas: Legal documents that require an individual or entity to provide testimony or produce evidence in a legal proceeding. Failure to comply with a subpoena can result in penalties or legal consequences. Subpoenas are essential tools for gathering information and ensuring justice in legal cases.

Subprime Loan: A loan offered to individuals not qualifying for prime rate loans. Subprime loans typically have higher interest rates to compensate for the increased risk. They provide financing options for borrowers with lower credit scores or limited credit history.

Summonses: Legal notices issued to inform an individual or entity of their involvement in a legal action. They require the recipient to appear in court or respond to the legal proceedings. Summonses ensure that parties know and can participate in the legal process.

Tax Refund: A reimbursement issued by the tax authorities when taxpayers overpay their taxes. Refunds can occur due to tax deductions, credits, or withholding exceeding the actual tax liability. Tax refunds provide financial relief and encourage compliance with tax laws.

Term: The length of time until the final payment on a loan is due. Loan terms can vary significantly, affecting the monthly payment amount and total interest paid. Understanding the term of a loan helps borrowers plan their finances and repayment strategy.

Term Deposit: A deposit held at a financial institution for a fixed term. Term deposits typically offer higher interest rates than regular savings accounts but require the money to be left on deposit for the duration of the term. They provide a secure and predictable return on investment.

Transfer: The movement of funds from one account to another. Transfers can be internal (within the same bank) or external (between different banks). Transfers are a common banking activity used for various purposes, such as paying bills, sending money to family, or managing finances.

Treasury Bill (T-Bill): A short-term government security with a maturity of less than one year. T-Bills are sold at a discount from their face value and pay the face value at maturity. They are considered a safe and liquid investment option.

Treasury Management: The process of managing an organization's cash flow, investments, and financial risk. It involves optimizing liquidity, ensuring adequate funding, and managing financial assets to maximize returns and minimize risk. Treasury management is crucial for maintaining the financial stability of a business.

Trusts: Legal arrangements where one party (the trustee) holds and manages assets for the benefit of another party (the beneficiary). Trusts are commonly used for estate planning, asset protection, and charitable purposes. They provide a structured way to manage and distribute assets according to the grantor's wishes.

U - Z

Underwriting: The process by which an insurer or lender evaluates the risk of insuring or lending money to a particular individual or entity. Underwriting determines the terms and price of the insurance or loan. It involves assessing the applicant's financial history, creditworthiness, and other relevant factors.

Unclaimed Property: Assets or funds abandoned by their rightful owner for a certain period. Examples include uncashed checks, dormant bank accounts, and unclaimed insurance benefits, which may be transferred to the state. Unclaimed property laws ensure that these assets are safeguarded and can eventually be reclaimed by their rightful owners.

Unsecured Loan: A loan that is not backed by collateral. Unsecured loans rely on the borrower's creditworthiness and typically have higher interest rates than secured loans. They are commonly used for personal expenses like debt consolidation or medical bills.

Variable Rate: An interest rate on a loan or security that fluctuates over time based on changes in the market. Variable rates can adjust periodically and are often tied to an index or benchmark. They can offer lower initial rates but come with the risk of rate increases.

Vendor Risk Management: Assessing and mitigating risks associated with third-party vendors. This includes evaluating vendor reliability, ensuring compliance with regulations, and managing potential threats to the organization's operations and data. Effective vendor risk management protects the organization's interests and reputation.

W-2 Form: A tax form used in the United States to report wages paid to employees and the taxes withheld from them. Employers must provide a W-2 form to each employee annually. It is essential for preparing and filing personal tax returns.

W-4 Form: A tax form used by employees to indicate their tax situation to the employer. The W-4 determines the amount of federal income tax to withhold from an employee's paycheck. Accurate completion of the W-4 ensures proper tax withholding and compliance.

Webinar: A live or on-demand, online informational session conducted over the internet, typically featuring presentations, lectures, or workshops by industry experts. Community Bankers Webinar Network works with dozens of banking experts to keep bankers up-to-date on the latest regulations, changes, and trends in the banking world.

Wire Transfer: An electronic transfer of funds from one person or entity to another. Wire transfers are a fast and secure method of transferring money, often used for large transactions. They involve the transfer of funds between banks and are commonly used for international and domestic payments.

Yield: The income return on an investment, such as the interest or dividends received. Yield is usually expressed as an annual percentage rate based on the investment's cost or current market value. It is a key measure of investment performance and profitability.

Yield Curve: A line that plots the interest rates, at a set point in time, of bonds having equal credit quality but differing maturity dates. The shape of the yield curve can provide insights into future interest rate changes and economic activity. An upward-sloping yield curve typically indicates positive economic growth expectations.

Zoning Ordinance: A law that specifies how property in certain areas can be used. Local governments use zoning ordinances to control land use and development. They help ensure orderly growth, protect property values, and promote the community's welfare.